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การกำหนดค่าคลาดเคลื่อน

อ่าน 13249 | ตอบ 2
จะกำหนดค่าความคลาดเคลื่อนของเครื่องมืออย่างไรดี ???
ก่อนที่จะเลือกใช้เครื่องมือวัดใดๆ ผู้ใช้จำเป็นที่จะต้องรู้ถึงค่าความคลาดเคลื่อนสูงสุดที่ยอมรับได้
ของเครื่องมือวัดที่ตนเองใช้ ซึ่งจากที่ผ่านมามักจะมีคำถามเกิดขึ้นมาว่า จะกำหนดความคลาดเคลื่อนของเครื่องมือวัดเท่าไหร่ดีจึงจะถูกต้องและเหมาะสม
จากมาตรฐาน MIL-STD-46552A ระบุว่ามาตรฐานที่ใช้สอบเทียบต้องมีความไม่แน่นอนไม่เกิน
25% ของความผิดพลาดของคุณลักษณะที่ถูกสอบเทียบ หรือนัยหนึ่งก็คือ มาตรฐานต้องมีความถูกต้องดีกว่าเครื่องมือที่ถูกสอบเทียบอย่างน้อย 4 เท่า  และมาตรฐานอีก 1 ฉบับ คือ ISO 10012-1 ระบุว่า ความผิดพลาดของมาตรฐานควรมีน้อยที่สุด  โดยทั่วไปไม่ควรน้อยกว่า 1 ใน 3 และที่ดีควรเป็น 1 ใน 10ของความผิดพลาดของเครื่องมือวัดที่ถูกสอบเทียบ หรืออีกนัยหนึ่งคือ มาตรฐานต้องมีความผิดพลาดน้อยกว่าเครื่องมือที่ถูกสอบเทียบไม่น้อยกว่า 3 เท่า หรือที่ดี คือ 10 เท่า
จากแนวทางการกำหนดความผิดพลาดของเครื่องมือมาตรฐานที่ใช้สำหรับสอบเทียบเครื่องมือดัง
กล่าวข้างต้น ทำให้เราสามารถนำมาใช้กับการกำหนดความคลาดเคลื่อนของเครื่องมือที่จะนำมาใช้ในการตรวจสอบ หรือควบคุมการผลิตได้ โดยหาความถูกต้องต่ำสุด หรืออย่างน้อยของเครื่องมือที่จำเป็น เทียบกับค่าที่ยอมรับได้ ( Tolerance ) ยกตัวอย่างเช่น
ตัวอย่างที่ 1  ในขั้นตอนการตัดขนาดขาเก้าอี้ ความยาวของขาเก้าอี้ที่ต้องควบคุมโดยให้มีความผิดพลาดจากสเปค ( Specification ) คือ +/- 1.8 mm ในการวัดความยาวของขาเก้าอี้นี้จะใช้ตลับเมตรเป็นเครื่องมือในการวัด ดังนั้นให้หาความคลาดเคลื่อนที่ยอมรับได้ของตลับเมตรที่ใช้จะได้ ค่าความคลาดเคลื่อนที่ยอมรับได้ของตลับเมตร = ( +/- 1.8 ) / 3 mm = +/- 0.6 mm
 
ตัวอย่างที่ 2   จากผลในตัวอย่างที่ 1 ให้หาค่าความคลาดเคลื่อนที่ยอมรับได้ของเวอร์เนียร์คาลิปเปอร์ ซึ่งใช้เป็นเครื่องมือมาตรฐานในการสอบเทียบตลับเมตรจะได้ ค่าความคลาดเคลื่อนที่ยอมรับได้ของเวอร์เนียร์คาลิปเปอร์ = ( +/- 0.6 ) / 3 mm = +/- 0.2 mm
 

แหล่งที่มาของข้อมูลอ้างอิง
ISO10012 – 1 Quality assurance requirements for measuring equipment Part 1 : Metrological Confirmation for Measuring Equipment , International Organization for Standardization (Geneva, Switzerland)
บุรินทร์ ไตรชินธนโชติ , เทคนิค &วิธีการในงานสอบเทียบเครื่องมือวัด , Edition 1 Nov. 2543

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Joy [68.202.141.xxx] เมื่อ 23/01/2019 02:13
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    Sue [68.202.141.xxx] เมื่อ 14/04/2019 15:46
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